How long has Europe been in history and how long it takes for sardines to be staple foods. The Greek word "sardonios" means "from Sardinia", which is still rich in sardines. This word is not only the source of the word "sardine" (sardine), but also the "sardonic" (taunting). The original meaning is a plant on the island of Sardinia that will make people look squirming and reveal "look like It’s a horrible smile, and it’s going to die.”
The evolution of such etymology is actually quite appropriate, because Western Sardine canning production line society has always faced sardines with a slightly ridiculous attitude, thinking that the fish is not small enough to take it seriously. In Spain, even in Cuba, at the other end of the Atlantic, every year after the fasting of Lenten's seafood, everyone will hold a "buried sardine" ceremony at the Ashes. At this ceremony, the man dressed as a woman, the woman dressed as a man, put a huge sardine paper on the truss on the street, shouting "Why is this?"
The oldest recipe known to date is the 5th century De Re coquinaria, which has a dish of stuffed honey and almonds in sardines. The Romans invented the method of preserving sardines with oil or salt so that the sardines caught in the summer can be stored for consumption in the winter. When Columbus first sailed, he also brought 400 barrels of sardines on board.
The world's first can of sardines appeared in 1824
The technique of preserving sardines did not make a real breakthrough until 1824, when Joseph of Nantes, France. Joseph Colin developed a preservation method for canned sardines in oil. Based on Nicolas Appert's heat sterilization method, he took British Durand to replace the wide-mouth champagne bottle with tin cans, soaked the sardines in salt water, and cut off the internal organs and fish heads. It is fried in a large fire, then placed in a jar filled with oil, and then placed in a steam oven for sterilization.
To this day, the quality of canned sardines produced by this program is still the best. In the coastal towns of Bretagne, the women workers in the factory made one can after the other with dexterous fingers. The appearance marked "Connetable millesime 2007", meaning "the first batch of sardines in the season."
Archaeologists have also discovered 16 Western 3rd century stone containers for the production of a fish sauce fermented with salmon and trout, a common seasoning for the Roman Empire. The Japanese also have their own fermented fish paste, which is called "salt fish sauce" by a mixture of squid or fish and fish guts and salt.
In addition, whether it is fish sauce in Vietnam, "South Pula" in Thailand, or Uster County soy sauce or Badun Sauce, you must add cooked squid and shrimp to have the indispensable flavor.
What kind of fish is sardine?
It is generally believed that sardines are not simply a type of fish, but rather a variety of small fish on the surface of the ocean. If they are made into cans, they are called sardines. The classification of canned fish has always been filled with this confusing problem. Sardines belong to the family Polygonaceae, including 300 species of fish, which together constitute one of the most important sources of protein in the ocean.
According to the international food standards established by the United Nations and internationally recognized, a total of 21 species of fish can be labeled as sardines, including small herring, Pilcher fish, clams, squid, and oil clams. For example, the canned sardines of Bronx are actually Atlantic salmon, and the small squid (scientific name "Sprattus sprattus balticus") is the same fish as the carp. The Pilced fish, which seems suspicious in the eyes of the British, is actually a relatively mature sardine; from another perspective, the sardine is just a relatively small Pilced fish. In the Pacific coast of the Americas, South American sardines are the most important species, featuring a row of black spots on the side of the body, and European sardines each belonging to a different genus. The difference between them is as far as humans and big cockroaches.
In fact, Western Europeans know that only one type of small fish is the real sardine, which is a fish that exists in the flank of the Western European coast and is fleshy and oily. According to international food standards, whether you eat this freshly grilled fish at a barbecue restaurant on the Portuguese beachfront or buy canned fish with olive oil, only the fish named "Sardina pilchardus" is not sold. In addition, the geographical name of Peru or California is simply called "sardine".